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How Tongues Helped Vertebrates Conquer Land

You might not think much of your tongue, but without it, we may have never conquered dry land and the world as we know it.

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Sources:

References:
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6413/460
https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/basihyal
https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/discover-fish/sharks/shark-biology/
https://www.sciencefocus.com/nature/do-fish-have-tongues/
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hyoid
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1546509805230029
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sarcopterygian
https://www.dictionary.com/browse/devonian
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2015.0057
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn27181-tongues-may-have-evolved-from-a-mouthful-of-water/
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/tetraintro.html
https://tiktaalik.uchicago.edu/meetTik.html
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/221/8/jeb154427.full.pdf
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amniota.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1570891/
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198078
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/06/dinosaur-trex-tongue-alligator-spd/
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.22.3754&rep=rep1&type=pdf
https://www.the-scientist.com/features/why-human-speech-is-special–64351
https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/dysphagia
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/02/14/106955.full.pdf

IMAGES

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maldives_manta_ray.jpg#/media/File:Maldives_m

https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/93855.php

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guiyu_BW.jpg#/media/File:Guiyu_BW.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tiktaalik_restoration_by_ObsidianSoul_01.png#/media/File:Tiktaalik_restoration_by_ObsidianSoul_01.png

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tiktaalik_Chicago.JPG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Surgical_anatomy_-_a_treatise_on_human_anatomy_in_its_application_to_the_practice_of_medicine_and_surgery_(1901)_(14759834806).jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salamander_larva_closeup.jpg#/media/File:Salamander_larva_closeup.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cetorhinus_maximus_by_greg_skomal.JPG#/media/File:Cetorhinus_maximus_by_greg_skomal.JPG

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